Introduction: Emotional and behavioral control is necessary self‐regulatory processes to maintain stable goal‐driven behavior. Studies indicate that variance in these executive function (EF) processes is related to morphological features of the brain and white matter (WM) differences. Furthermore, sex hormone level may modulate circuits in the brain important for cognitive function. Methods: We aimed to investigate the structural neural correlates of EF behavior in gray matter (GM) and WM while taking into account estradiol level, in an adolescent population. The present study obtained neuroimaging behavioral and physiological data from the National Institute of Health’s Pediatric Database (NIHPD). We analyzed the relationship between cortical morphometry and structural connectivity (N = 55), using a parent‐administered behavioral monitoring instrument (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function—BRIEF), estradiol level, as well as their interaction. Results: Executive function behavior and estradiol level related to bidirectional associations with cortical morphometry in the right posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (pDLPFC) and primary motor cortex (PMC), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA) in the forceps major and minor. Lastly, the interaction of EF behavior and estradiol level related to decreased volume in the right PMC and was linked to altered FA in the right inferior fronto‐occipital fasciculus (iFOF). Conclusions: The study provides evidence that the relationship between EF behavior and estradiol level related to bidirectional GM and WM differences, implying estradiol level has an influence on the putative structural regions underlying EF behavior. The findings represent a crucial link between EF behavior and hormonal influence on brain structure in adolescence.
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